Books about Foucault: further details

This page includes additional details about some of the books listed on the New Books and Publications page.

Cécile BRICH, 'Foucault, Criminal Subjectivity, and the Groupe d'information sur les prisons'

Ph.D. thesis
School of Modern Languages and Cultures, The University of Leeds, UK

This thesis analyses Michel Foucault's consistent interest, both theoretical and political, in the place of criminals and prisoners in modern Western society. I argue that close reading of the original French versions of some of Foucault's major works, including Histoire de la folie (HF), L'archéologie du savoir (AS), Surveiller et punir (SP) and La Volonté de savoir (VS), reveals a recurrent concern with the discursive and non-discursive processes through which subjects are constituted as criminals. Foucault's views on the role of criminal subjectivity in modern society can also be observed to have impacted on his involvement in the French prisoners' movement, through the creation of the Groupe d'information sur les prisons (GIP) in 1971.

The first part of the thesis offers a textual analysis of the construction of the criminal as a central character in some of Foucault's most influential writings. I show that his oeuvre depicts criminals as being constituted through the three modes of subjectification which Foucault claimed to have studied. Chapter 1 analyses the construction of delinquents through dividing practices in HF, SP and VS; Chapter 2 deals with the formation of criminal subjects in discourse in AS and VS; Chapter 3 explores the self-constitution of individuals as outlaws with reference to Pierre Rivière's memoir, edited by Foucault. I suggest that, in every case, criminal subjectivity is presented as essentially indissociable from mainstream modern Western subjectivity.

In the second part of the thesis, I examine the methodology of the GIP, which ostensibly aimed to give prisoners the means to speak for themselves, rather than have intellectuals speaking on their behalf. Using discourse analysis, I demonstrate that the GIP's methods could in fact not fulfil their proclaimed purpose. Textual analysis of prisoners' writings sent to the GIP also allows me to show that these documents, hailed by the GIP as representing the voice of inmates, are rather a dialogical product of interaction between prisoners and the GIP. I argue that Foucault's approach to the prisoners' movement was influenced by his theoretical view of criminals discussed in Part I, yet betrayed a linguistic naivety incommensurable with his own analysis of discursive subject positions.

In conclusion, I argue that Foucault's depiction of criminal subjectivity is central to his vision of modern Western society, and that it sheds new light on the problem of resistance in both his theoretical and his political work.

Religion and Culture by Michel Foucault. Selected and edited by Jeremy R. Carrette. Manchester: Manchester University Press (UK) and Routledge, New York
(USA) ISBN 0-7190-5467-2 216pp.

The work of Michel Foucault (1926-84) has affected almost every discipline in the humanities, but few have appreciated how his work engaged with theological and religious themes. This reader brings together a selection of Foucault's essays, lectures and interviews on religion and theology from his earliest studies of madness to the final "Confessions of the Flesh" - the unpublished fourth volume.

Religion and Culture brings together work by Foucault on avant-garde religious themes, such as the death of God and the religious space of literature, Foucault's brief encounter with Japanese culture, Zen Buddhism and the political spirituality of Iran. It also includes a collection of studies on Foucault's work on Christianity. These essays and lectures provide a background to Foucault's enigmatic work on Christian confession, Augustine and the early Church fathers which to this day remains unpublished in accordance with an interpretation of Foucault's final request. The work includes texts that have not been previously translated from the French. There is also an extensive introduction to Foucault's work on religion, a foreword by the Jesuit scholar James Bernauer and a postscript on Foucault, Christianity and gay sexuality.

Mark S. Cladis (ed.) Durkheim and Foucault: perspectives on education and punishment Oxford: Durkheim Press, 1999. ISBN 0-9529936-2-7. 122pp

Includes articles by: Mark Cladis, "Durkheim and Foucault on education and punishment" David Garland, "Durkheim's sociology of punishment and punishment today" W.S.F. Pickering, "The administration of punishment in schools" Werner Gephart, "The realm of normativity in Durkheim and Foucault" William Ramp, "Durkheim and Foucault on the genesis of the disciplinary society"

Durkheim Press is at P.O. Box 889, Oxford OX2 6GP, U.K. This book is discounted for members of the British Assn. of Durkheimian Studies.

Culpitt, Ian (2001) 'Michel Foucault, Social Policy and 'Limit Experience'. Ph.D. thesis. Social Policy, Victoria University of Wellington.

When people follow Foucault, when they're fascinated by him, it's because they're doing something with him, in their own work, in their own independent lives. It's not just a question of intellectual understanding or agreement, but of intensity, resonance, musical harmony. Good lectures, after all, are more like a concert than a sermon, like a soloist 'accompanied' by everyone else. And Foucault gave wonderful lectures.

Gilles Deleuze, Negotiations. (1995: 86)

Foucault carved numerous turns of phrase into ice-sculptures, which had, for a moment, sharp contours. Then he walked away from them insouciant, and let them melt, for he no longer needed them. His less gifted readers put the half-melted shapes in the freezer and, without thinking, reproduce these figures as if they still glistened in the midnight sun and meant something.

Ian Hacking, Mad Travellers: Reflections on the Reality of Transient Mental Illnesses. (1998b: 85)

I can't help but dream of a kind of criticism that would try not to judge but to bring an oeuvre, a book, a sentence, an idea to life; it would light fires, watch the grass grow, listen to the wind, and catch the sea foam in the breeze and scatter it. It would multiply not judgments but signs of existence; it would summon them, drag them from their sleep... I'd like a criticism of scintillating leaps of the imagination. It would not be sovereign or dressed in red. It would bear the lightning of possible storms.

Michel Foucault, Ethics, Subjectivity and Truth. (1997c: 323)

This thesis considers whether the discipline of social policy can validly use the patterns and intentions implicit in Foucault's critique of modernity to develop a new qualitative approach to social theory. He examined the conditions under which various regimes of social and political practice came into being; how they are maintained and the particular manner of their transformation.

There are two specific emphases that establish the pattern of my overall inquiry. The first involves a reflection on the troubled and ineffectual place of normative social theory within contemporary social policy discourse. The second is a reconsideration of Foucault's oeuvre in relation to new social theory building within social policy. Both of these concerns offer an opportunity to reflect on the place of social theory within a discursive world that 'appears' cosmopolitan and diverse.

Foucault famously declared that the point of philosophical activity involved the endeavour to know how and to what extent it might be possible to think differently - to examine the functioning of our ideas as 'limit-experiences'. He coined this phrase 'limit-experience' to outline his critique of the 'forms of rationalizations' that comprise the present practice of politics within modernity. He thought the decisive question was how apparently 'universal, necessary', and obligatory discourses about political and social knowledge shapes that which ought more properly to be regarded as 'singular, contingent, and the product of arbitrary constraints'.

The former injunctive and 'magisterial' arguments that supported initial patterns of welfare state rhetoric are no longer persuasive. There has been a 'sea-change' in contemporary social ideas - from a welfare state to a welfare society - one that is breath-taking in its hegemonic compass. That world is increasingly depicted as a postmodern social world where there is little apparent respect for, let alone reliance on, the grand metaphors and social themes of classic social policy.

This reconsideration of Foucault's ideas from a social policy perspective will not necessarily yield a new compelling normative rhetoric but it will provide an opportunity to think differently about the taken-for-granted nature of so much social policy theorizing. His portrayal of how we might 'think differently' about the multitude of practices involved in the rationalizations and subjectifications of 'limit-experiences' provides an opportunity to reflect on the patterning and practices that construct the current discourses of welfare and social policy. We do need to think differently or at least to see if it is possible to do so. Imagining difference, strategizing for it, and welcoming it, mark us out as constantly restless - a personal style that Foucault embraced with some gusto!

Discourses of the Environment
Edited by Eric Darier
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers,1999

This is the first book to provide readers with critical understandings of the environment using a range of theoretical perspectives inspired by Michel Foucault. The contributors examine the proliferation of discourses about the environment that have emerged from all areas of society in the past 30 years. The book helps the reader make sense of the significance of environmental legislation, regulation, institution-building, the growth of environmental movements and eco-warriors, and new environmental practices such as recycling and green consumerism.

The book examines issues of current public and academic debate, such as the construction of environmental awareness; the role of 'knowledge' and 'scientific' knowledge in defining legitimate environmental issues; and how and why concerns for the environment translate into new environmental social practices. The international team of contributors draw on a range of theoretical and critical concepts to address the many questions about the environment with the broader debate around modernity and postmodernity.


1. Foucault and the Environment: An Introduction
Eric Darier


2. 'The Entry of Life into History'
Paul Rutherford

3. The Construction of Environmental 'Awareness'
Isabelle Lanthier & Lawrence Olivier

4. Sex at the Limits
Catriona Sandilands

5. Ecological Modernization and Environmental Risk
Paul Rutherford


6. Environmentality as Green Governmentality
Timothy W. Luke

7. Art and Foucauldian Heterotopias
Thomas Heyd

8. Nature Writing as Self-Technology
Sylvia Bowerbank


9. Nature as Dangerous Space
Peter Quigley

10. Foucault's Unnatural Ecology
Neil Levy

11. Foucault against Environmental Ethics
Eric Darier

Available: in the UK at a price of £15.99 paperback and £50.00 hardback, in the US at a price of $26.95 paperback and $59.95 hardback, from Basil Blackwell Inc., 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148.

ISBN 0-631-21122-5 (hbk)
ISBN 0-631-21123-3 (pbk)

Deacon, Roger (2003) Fabricating Foucault: Rationalising the Management of Individuals, Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. ISBN: 0874626617 (pbk)

Fabricating Foucault explores the implications of the work of Michel Foucault for the Enlightenment project. Can the modern drive to explain the world so as to guide political action and promote progressive change be defended in the light of Foucault's critique? How might genealogy rewrite the history of truth when truth structures the very limits of our knowledge? Is it possible to rethink relations of power as strategies of governance which depend on the existence of free subjects capable of resistance? What is the relationship between the manufacture of subjectivity and Foucault's call to engage in aesthetic stylistic experimentation upon ourselves?

Chapter 1: Enlightenment, truth and the critique of reason
Chapter 2: Genealogy and the problematization of enlightenment
Chapter 3: Power as sovereignty and the history of discipline
Chapter 4: Reconceptualising power relations
Chapter 5: The production of subjectivity

Available from Marquette University Press:
30 Amberwood Parkway
P O Box 388
OH 44805
United States of America
Tel: 1-800-247-6553 (USA)
Tel: 1-419-281-1802 (outside USA)
Fax: 1-419-281-6883

Pascal Lardellier, Théorie du lien rituel: Anthropologie et Communication, Paris: L'Harmattan, Postface d'Alain Caillé,

Les grands rites communautaires - rites politiques monarchiques et républicains,'liturgies profanes' créées par le sport et le cinéma, cérémonials judiciaires... - sont traditionnellement des objets d’études anthropologiques. Les sciences de l’information et de la communication (SIC) centrent quant à elles leur attention sur l’autre versant de la ritualité, celui de ces 'rites d’interaction' (E. Goffman) intégrés socialement et culturellement. L’ambition de cet ouvrage a été d’ouvrir le spectre rituel, reconsidérant les grands rites communautaires à travers un prisme 'communicationnel'. A leur étude, un appareil conceptuel est appliqué ici, qui mobilise par exemple les notions de médiation symbolique, de creuset d’interactions, de présentation et de communication de soi, de 'communion sociale'...

Une très grande attention est de même accordée au dispositif, au cadre, au contexte et à la performance, tous considérés ici dans leur acception rituelle. Cette étude se fonde sur l’héritage théorique de Mauss, de Durkheim, de Goffman, de Turner, de Balandier, mais aussi d’Abélès, d’Augé et de Winkin. Mais elle emprunte de même à Katz et Dayan, car la dimension médiatique de ces rites a été considérée avec une grande attention.

Le travail a surtout consisté à élargir certaines notions de l’École de Palo Alto et du courant interactionniste, pour les faire passer de leur échelle interpersonnelle, à un niveau communautaire. Plusieurs concepts originaux sont proposés dans ces pages, qui tentent de saisir la fonction allouée, dans les processus rituels, au regard et à la fascination, à l’apparence et à la magnificence, à la contrainte, enfin, comme instance de contrôle social.

L’objectif théorique a donc été de rapprocher l’anthropologie des sciences de la communication, afin de les enrichir de regards croisés et complémentaires, portés sur des objets qui leur sont finalement communs. Plus largement, une réflexion est proposée sur les formes, le sens et la fonction des rites dans les sociétés contemporaines.

Pascal LARDELLIER est professeur de sciences de l’information et de la communication à l’Université de Bourgogne (IUT de Dijon), et chercheur au LIMSIC.

238 pages, 19 euros +port,ISBN : 2-7475-3646-7 Pour toute commande :

Librairie TEKHNE,
7, rue des Carmes,
75 005 Paris
Tel : (33 ) 1  43 54 70 84
Fax : ( 33) 1 44 07 07 39

Neil Levy Being Up-To-Date: Foucault, Sartre, and Postmodernity New York: Peter Lang, 2001
ISBN: 0-8204-51185 Price: $54.95

About the Book
It is often claimed that at some time in the recent past, philosophy underwent a profound transformation. The era inaugurated perhaps by Descartes has come to an end, and we have entered the epoch of postmodernity. This book examines that claim by focusing on two exemplary figures, representative of modernity and postmodernity respectively: Jean-Paul Sartre and Michel Foucault. Concentrating on their political thought, it shows that each is beset by the same kinds of problems and evolves parallel and complementary solutions. The continuities that exist between them are sufficient to call into question the notion that a fissure runs between the two epochs they represent; nevertheless Neil Levy suggests that their thought can be seen as presenting us with the resources for thinking and criticizing our present in a manner that is alert to the paradoxes and contingencies often seen as characterizing postmodernity.

About the Author
Neil Levy received his Ph.D. from Monash University, Australia, in 1995. Since then he has lectured in continental philosophy and in political philosophy at Monash University and at Macquarie University, Sydney. He has published widely on both continental philosophy and Anglo-American political philosophy.

Understanding Education: Contexts and Agendas for the New Millennium
Edited by D. Meadmore, B. Burnett and P. O'Brien
Sydney: Prentice Hall

This book takes a sociology of education/cultural studies approach to the understanding of education. It uses Foucault's work extensively as a theoretical reference. It is particularly useful as an introductory text for teacher trainees at the university level and contains tutorial and fieldwork suggestions.

Chapter 1 - Mapping the landscape
Daphne Meadmore

Chapter 2 - Postmodernism for the uniniated
Clare O'Farrell

Chapter 3 - Reconstructing childhood
Noeline Kyle

Chapter 4 - Individuality in education
Erica McWilliam

Chapter 5 - Rapunzel barbie or action man? learning the lessons of gender
Jillian Brannock

Chapter 6 - Indigenous cultures and identities
Sandra Taylor

Chapter 7 - Reactions to race: racial reactions
Bruce Burnett

Chapter 8 - Class counts! social class and education
Daphne Meadmore

Chapter 9 - Dirt roads, bank closures and ice-cream cake for little lunch: rural communities and education
Leonie Daws

Chapter 10 - Youth Cultures, style and education
Gordon Tait.

Chapter 11 - Globalisation, postcolonialism and educational change
Anne Hickling-Hudson.

Chapter 12 - Education at what price?
Peter Meadmore.

Chapter 13 - The enterprising school
Erica McWilliam

Chapter 14 - New minds for new times; education and the new work order
Peter O'Brien

Chapter 15 - What makes a good leader?
Erin Neill Chapter 16 - 'Re-engineering' schools and 're-inventing' teaching
Neil Cranston.

McManus, Ruth (2003) 'Bad death: Sociology and the moral regulation of suicide in New Zealand', PhD Thesis. Sociology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

This thesis investigates the moral regulation of suicide in New Zealand. In classical sociology, moral regulation is conceived as the placing of external constraints upon social actors, a conception that fails to acknowledge moral agency. In response to classical dualities, Foucauldian studies of governmentality theorise moral boundaries and actors as simultaneous discursive constructions. Regulation is achieved through the enablement of subjectivity. Analysis undertaken on these terms shows that suicide regulation in New Zealand consists of three discrete periods - criminalisation, pathologisation and, in the current era, riskification.

Currently, suicide regulation is achieved by constructing subjectivity as rational and instrumental individuals who take responsibility for their own lives. Although in many respects useful, this Foucauldian analysis fails to consider relations between governors and governed. Consequently, an implicit logic of assimilation devolves governmentality into a theory of elite domination that, like classical sociology, fails to recognise moral agency. In response, the thesis investigates discursive relations centred on bereaved by suicide support groups. Analysis shows that the governed refuse to assimilate official discourses. Rejecting responsibility as a stigma, the governed develop an ethic of self-care that constructs compassionate selves. In theoretical terms, then, moral regulation is an outcome of hierarchical discursive conflict. Moral agency is developed through lay resistance to authority.

Alan Milchman and Alan Rosenberg (eds) (2003), Foucault and Heidegger: Critical Encounters, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press

Michel Foucault and Martin Heidegger are two of the most important intellectual figures of the twentieth century, and yet there are significant, largely unexplored questions about the relationship between their projects. Foucault and Heidegger stages a crucial critical encounter between these two thinkers; in doing so, it clarifies not only the complexities of the Heidegger-Foucault relationship, but also their relevance to questions about truth and nihilism, acquiescence and resistance, and technology and agency that are central to debates in contemporary thought.

These essays examine topics ranging from Heidegger's and Foucault's intellectual forebears to their respective under standing of the Enlightenment, modernity, and technology, to their conceptions of power and the political.

Contributors: Hubert L. Dreyfus, U of California, Berkeley; Stuart Elden, U of Warwick, UK; Béatrice Han, U of Essex, UK; Steven V. Hicks, CUNY; Ladelle McWhorter, U of Richmond; Jana Sawicki, Williams College; Michael Schwartz, Augusta State U; Charles E. Scott, Pennsylvania State U; William V. Spanos, Binghamton U; Leslie Paul Thiele, U of Florida; Rudi Visker, Institute of Philosophy, Belgium; Edith Wyschogrod, Rice U.

Alan Milchman is lecturer in political science and Alan Rosenberg is associate professor of philosophy, both at Queens College, City University of New York.

ISBN 0-8166-3378-9 Cloth $63.95
ISBN 0-8166-3379-7 Paper $22.95
260 Pages 5 % X 9 May
Contradictions Series, volume 16 Translation Inquiries: University of Minnesota Press

Daniel Purdy, The Tyranny of Elegance: Consumer Cosmopolitanism in the Era of Goethe, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

The book shows how disciplinary regimes were adopted at the end of the eighteenth century within consumer culture, particularly with regard to male dress. The book also builds on Foucault's rebuttal of the repression model of sexuality. Rather than accepting the view that masculine attire in the modern era represented the renunciation of sartorial pleasure, I argue that respectable black attire constituted an escalation of control over the individual consumer. Bourgeois society enacted upon itself the restrictions which Absolutist princes sought to impose on the populace through sumptuary laws.

The book also outlines the differences between disciplinary institutions and the public sphere by comparing the different power regimes that operate through military uniforms (an invention of the 18th century) and the business suit. Fashion is fundamentally a manifestation of bourgeois society and thus it operates differently than disciplinary institutions. In the end I try to situate Jurgen Habermas's public sphere in a meaningful relation to disciplinary power. These are some of the Foucaultian aspects of the book. There are chapters that are not directly derived from his work, but are written in his wake.

Paul Rutherford, 'The Problem of Nature in Contemporary Social Theory', PhD Thesis, June 2000. Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.

This work addresses extremely important questions around the relationship between society and nature in recent social theory. In doing so it attempts to incorporate the fundamental exclusion of nature into the core themes and concepts of a broad range of theories, from the Frankfurt School, German critical theory of Habermas, Beck and Eder, to that of Foucault and French post-structuralism and the sociology of science of Bruno Latour, their colleagues and successors.

The Frankfurt School's notion of the dialectic of enlightenment is considered, as are the attempts by Jurgen Habermas to defend an 'emancipatory' theory of modernity against this. The marginalising effect Habermas' defence of reason has had on the place of nature in his critical social theory is examined, as is the work of more recent German theorists Ulrich Beck and Klaus Eder. For the latter, unlike Habermas, the social relation to nature is at the centre of contemporary society, giving rise to new forms of modernisation and politics.

Michel Foucault's work on biopolitics and governmentality is considered against the background of his philosophical differences with Habermas on power and rationality. It is argued that the growth of scientific ecology has both problematised the social relation to nature and provided the political technology for new forms of regulatory intervention in the management of the population and resources. These new forms of intervention can thus be characterised as constituting an ecological governmentality similar in to that identified by Foucault in relation to the human sciences.

However, Foucault's work was not sufficiently critical of the relationship between the natural sciences and power. Extending Foucault's biopolitics to environmental discourse is consistent with his general approach to power, but his incomplete critique of political sovereignty meant that for him agency remained tied to an idealised notion of the autonomy of the human subject. He therefore made too strong a distinction between the human and natural sciences and between power and the capacities of non-human entities, and continued to view the natural sciences as separating themselves from power in a way that was not possible in the human sciences.

A more general critique of epistemic sovereignty reveals that the natural sciences (including ecology) are subject to disciplinary and normalising practices similar to those of the human sciences. Foucault's key inadequacy is that he linked agency to human autonomy and sovereignty. The work of Bruno Latour and other actor network theorists show that an unambiguous ontological distinction between nature, material technologies and active human subjects is highly problematic. In the place of a separate 'society' and 'nature', the thesis argues that it is preferable to see these as a part of a 'socio-nature' assemblage, populated by the hybrid products of translation networks.

The concept of biopolitics, by drawing on the insights of governmentality studies, and the approach of actor network theory to agency and translation, can provide an important theoretical framework for understanding the ecological programs of government that have emerged around the problem of nature in second half of the twentieth century. In particular the approach challenges political and social theory to seriously consider the radical implications of a deconstruction of the natural determinism / social agency binary. If agency does not inhere in individuals, but in a network assembled from material technologies, natural entities and people, then many of the debates of political and social theory are, if not irrelevant, fundamentally misdirected.

Schmitt (2000) La Dictature, Trans. Dominique Séglard, Paris: Seuil.

Trois graves questions sont traitées:

1.Comment une norme juridique se réalise-t-elle? Elle ne peut le faire toute seule, et présuppose une "situation normale". Il faut donc qu'il y ait des "normes de réalisation du droit". Et la décision en situation d'exception appartient donc au domaine juridique.

2.D'autre part, le libéralisme postule que la Constitution est la référence ultime. Or elle ne peut évidemment prévoire tous les cas, et il peut y avoir de l'imprévu. La Constitution peut donc tout au plus prévoir "qui" agira à ce moment mais non prévoir "ce qu"'il fera. C'est là que le concept de souveraineté devient important, et le souverain peut désigner un commissaire pour exécuter sa décision.

3.Enfin, s'il y a, depuis Rome, une dictature de commissaire, depuis la Révolution française on a vu naître une nouvelle figure : la dictature souveraine, c'est-à-dire une dictature sans pouvoir souverain, mais une dictature qui s'impose pour réaliser le souverain (le peuple souverain pendant la Révolution française et la Terreur, mais plus tard la dictature du prolétariat). D'où le problème : pour faire face à ce type moderne de dictature, il faut prévoir dans la Constitution que, en situation d'exception, le président peut suspendre certains droits fondamentaux afin de protéger la Constitution comprise comme régime. Or c'est bien le cas en France (article 16), en Allemagne depuis 1949, mais aussi aux USA. Schmitt tenait ce livre pour l'un de ses trois meilleurs (pourtant il avait une trentaine d'années lorsqu'il l'a écrit ), et il a profondément marqué Walter Benjamin, (en particulier sa thèse sur le Trauerspiel) qui le reconnaît dans une lettre à Schmitt de 1932.

Schmitt pousse jusqu'à sa limite le modèle juridique de la souveraineté auquel Foucault s'est tellement opposé. Mais il y a deux ou trois points communs entre eux :
-La méthode du cas extrême ou du cas limite pour penser un concept.
-Procéder à une analyse conceptuelle liée à des pratiques réfléchies ( ainsi Schmitt ne s'intéresse pas à la seule histoire du concept de la souveraineté, mais aussi à Cromwell, ou Wallenstein )
-Même constat : la rationalité libérale est une critique de la raison politique. Toutefois, ils en tirent des conséquences opposées.

The Extra-ordinary School: Parergonality and Pedagogy,
Edited by Colin Symes and Daphne Meadmore
New York: Peter Lang, March 1999

The Extra-Ordinary School analyses the extraordinary behind the ordinary in the school. Using Michel Foucault's work amongst others, it examines a range of features in the culture of the school, and argues that the extraordinary represents an important dimension of the way the organisation of the school is maintained and managed. First, the book deals with the culture of the school, with such matters as school vestibules and speech nights, school excursions, and festivities such as rock music competitions. Then it looks at aspects of school administration to do with school time, school efficiency drives and the testing/examination culture. Lastly, it attends to the school and the body: the risk culture associated with school break-up rituals and the health regimes associated with physical education and the AIDS scare.

Introduction- Parergonality and Pedagogy
Colin Symes and Daphne Meadmore

Chapter 1- First Impressions: The Semiotics of School Vestibules
Colin Symes.

Chapter 2 - 'Securing a Regular Government': The Prefect and the Contemporary School
Erica McWilliam and Nicole Cantle.

Chapter 3 - All-Male Schooling: Speech Night and the Construction of Masculinities
Richard Courtice.

Chapter 4 - New Routes for the Field Trip
Gordon Tait and Deborah Huber.

Chapter 5 - Brand New Spectacles: The Make-Over of the School Musical
Erica McWilliam.

Chapter 6 - Un/Learning the Habits of Clock Time: Re-Vision Time for Time in Education
Barbara Adam.

Chapter 7 - Efficiency at Any Cost: The Post-Welfarist Education Policy Context
Sharon Gewirtz.

Chapter 8 - Keeping Up to the Mark: Testing as Surveillance
Daphne Meadmore.

Chapter 9 - Health, the Body and the Medicalisation of the School
David Kirk.

Chapter 10 - Embodying the School/Schooling Bodies: Physical Education as Disciplinary Technology
David Kirk.

Chapter 11 - Schoolies Week: Rethinking Risk
Susan Hopkins.

William Walters (2002) Unemployment and Government: Genealogies of the Social Cambridge: Cambridge. ISBN: 0521643333

While joblessness is by no means a phenomenon specific to this century, the concept of 'unemployment' is. This book follows the invention and transformation of unemployment, understood as a historically specific site of regulation. Taking key aspects of the history of unemployment in Britain as its focus, it argues that the ways in which authorities have defined and sought to manage the jobless have been remarkably varied. In tracing some of the different constructions of unemployment over the last 100 years - as a problem of 'character', as a social 'risk', or today, as a problem of 'skills' - the study highlights the discursive dimension of social and economic policy problems. The book examines such institutionalized practices as the labour bureau, unemployment insurance, and the 'New Deal' as 'technologies' of power. The result is a challenge to our thinking about welfare states.

Chapter Contents
1. The discovery of unemployment;
2. Inventing unemployment: the birth of the labour exchange;
3. Governing unemployment as a 'risk';
4. Governing through the long-term unemployed: unemployment between the wars;
5. Unemployment and its spaces; 6. Governing divided societies: the new deal.

Nathan Widder, Genealogies of Difference, University of Illinois Press, 2002, ISBN #0252027078

Genealogies of Difference combines critical engagements with modern and postmodern theories of identity, difference, contingency, and time with strategic forays into ancient, early Christian, and medieval philosophy. Without losing sight of complex contributions from the past, Nathan Widder provides the philosophical underpinnings for a politics and ethics of difference crucial to our present day. Lucid and distinctive, this volume is an important, in-depth contribution to contemporary debates on pluralism, multiplicity, and community.

This deft study establishes the failure of Hegelian dialectics to adequately come to terms with the problem of difference. Drawing from the works of Nietzsche, Lyotard, Deleuze, Foucault, and Blanchot, Widder demonstrates the need to rethink the nature of difference and the categories of thought that have dominated Western philosophy. He then provides a keen exploration of major and marginal figures and schools in the history of Western thought-including Aristotle, Epicureanism, Augustine, Gnosticism, and medieval Scholasticism-to illustrate the relevance and relation of these perspectives to contemporary issues and thought.

Widder addresses the substantial body of theoretical discourse on difference without neglecting the history of political thought or the contemporary criticisms of the tradition. His genealogical endeavor develops a concept of difference indispensable to a postmodern world of blurred boundaries and hybrid forms that exceed our traditional categories of understanding.

"[Genealogies of Difference] seeks to show that the rejection of metaphysical foundations lead neither to a postmodern ironism or skepticism nor to a negative theology...A pertinent and instructive contribution to contemporary thinking in the area of philosophy and political theory" -- Keith Ansell Pearson, author of Germinal Life: The Difference and Repetition of Deleuze

"Have you heard that the philosophy of difference is a modern or, even, postmodern event? Nathan Widder puts that story to bed. This is genealogy in the most productive sense of the word: a disaggregation of nostalgic narratives that render the modern world fragmented and lost in order to spurt the return to a time that never was" -- William E. Connolly, author of Neuropolitics: Thinking, Culture, Speed

Table of Contents
The Quest for Lost Time and Space
Force, Synthesis, and Event
A Question of Limits and Continuity: Aristotle, Epicureanism and the Logic of Totality
The One and the Many: Augustine and Gnosticism
Reason and Faith: Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and Ockham
The Ethics of a Pluralism Made of Stolen Bits